A poem and a setting, this piece appeared in Stephen Brooke's collection VOYAGES
Thursday, March 16, 2023
Wednesday, March 15, 2023
Readability Versus Legibility
Thoughts on type choices for authors and small/self-publishers, by Stephen Brooke
One might think readable text is the equivalent of legible text, but they are two different typographic goals. Readability brings quick, effortless reading, without tiring the eye, each letter and word flowing into the next. This is what we desire in a printed book of fiction. The drawback of highly readable text is that we are less likely to note typos and other mistakes, and also that comprehension might not be as good as with a text that gives us a slower read.
Legible text lets us see everything. This is obviously desirable for headlines, advertising, and so on, but not so desirable for print fiction. For books where we might wish to slow things down a bit and increase comprehension, as in poetry or textbooks, a slightly less readable font might be the way to go. Legibility over readability is also the preference in books for small children. Perhaps magazine articles should sometimes slow down the reader a tad, as well. Still, all these do need reasonably readable text.
Now, when I write drafts of my fiction I use a highly legible typeface. Century Schoolbook has been a favorite for this—and also for such applications as textbooks, children’s literature, and legal documents. Recently, I have gone to Sitka which has the advantage of coming installed on every Windows PC as a system font. That certainly simplifies moving documents from one computer to another (yes, I know some use Macs or Linux—as have I in the past—but I do not expect to ever work on anything but Windows in the future). Sitka also displays well on-screen, and (like Schoolbook) has large, easily recognizable punctuation. Punctuation is one of the major problems with many readable typefaces; it sometimes becomes difficult to recognize just what punctuation is being used. Quotation marks can particularly be a problem.
At times, I have gone to monospaced fonts for drafting (and still prefer them for poetry and songwriting). These make spotting mistakes even easier. A personal favorite is Bitstream’s Prestige 12, but there are other perfectly good choices.
I use the typical readable typefaces in my published fiction (all this holds true for self-publishers and indies in general). Garamond and its many variants and descendants is generally a good choice (but not always, mind you—there are some strange, spiky Garamond derivatives out there that are better avoided). Caslons are usually good. The many versions of Palatino? Maybe not quite so readable, though certainly acceptable. They are my default for printing poetry. Incidentally, Palatino was never intended for text, being designed by Herman Zapf as a titling font to go with his Aldus typeface. If you can get hold of Aldus, consider using it instead in prose books.
Plantin has been a safe choice for a century. Crimson Pro might be seen as an open license alternative for today (available free from Google Fonts). Keep in mind that the bulk of the free, open license type available is not particular intended for nor suited to use in your novel. Some that look promising are really better suited to legible text on a web site. Libre Caslon, for example; one could get away with using it in a print book but there are certainly better choices.
And by all means avoid Times New Roman. Its tight spacing works well in narrow columns but it is neither readable nor particularly legible spread across a wider page. There are loads of choices, really, some free, some economically priced (like Softmaker’s Megafont collection). Just make sure the license allows commercial use if you are going to use them in print or embedded in a PDF ebook (embedding in an EPUB is an whole other matter—I only specify ‘serif’ as the typeface in mine and avoid all that).
Of course, none of that matters for the typeface you use to write your drafts. Pick one you like, one that lets you see what you need to see. It needn’t be anything like what will be used in the final product; indeed, it’s better if it is quite different, so you don’t get used to seeing the same type all the way through the editing process. In other words, start legible and move to readable when the work is ready.
Sunday, March 5, 2023
“WEST COAST OF AFRICA, ABOUT 10 DEGREES SOUTH LATITUDE.”
That, according to the first of Edgar Rice Burroughs’s Tarzan novels, ‘Tarzan of the Apes,’ is where the parents of John Clayton, the future Lord Greystoke and Lord of the Jungle, were shipwrecked, Tarzan was born, and where they died, their infant son being adopted by a ‘great ape.’ Incidentally, those apes were not gorillas, nor seemingly chimpanzees nor even bonobos, but an unknown and more manlike species. But that’s not the point here.
That latitude would place young Tarzan in Angola, not too far south of the mouth of the Congo River. Most of the supporting story would corroborate that being the area in which the book is set—not that Burroughs was any kind of expert—with the natives he encounters being refugees from the Belgian Congo, just to the north. Though Burroughs had his occasional racist moments, he did disapprove of the abuses of the Belgians in Africa and did not hesitate to condemn them.
Although in the later novels Tarzan might seem to be established further north, perhaps in the area of Kenya, with adventures north into Ethiopia, in the early ones he definitely lives further south with his adopted tribe, the Waziri, possibly in what is now Zambia and was then Northern Rhodesia. Or just maybe he was a little further north in the Rwanda-Burundi locale. Many of the stories seem to take place in the mountainous regions bordering the east and south of the Belgian Congo. Opar is somewhere in those mountains, and lost Pal-ul-don with its dinosaurs and tailed ‘humans.’
The Waziri might well have been inspired by the people of Rwanda. Certainly the mountainous jungle terrain through with Tarzan moves at times would suggest that area. But, again, Burroughs was no expert on Africa and probably did little more than glean a few facts from books. He set Tarzan up in true colonial fashion as the master of a wide African estate—somewhere, be it Zambia, Rwanda, or even Uganda or Kenya.
It may be noted that during the First World War, that estate was raided by the Germans (from what was then German East Africa and later Tanganyika). Rwanda-Burundi is definitely in striking distance (the events in “The African Queen” were along its borders), not that motivated soldiers could not have penetrated well into Northern Rhodesia. Uganda or Kenya seems less likely.
Arabs, maybe not so much, and Tarzan does have a problem from time to time with Arab raiders. The term Arabs is used very broadly—Burroughs notes that at least some are black or of mixed ancestry. Calling them Arabs was enough for the stories; generally they were up to no good, after slaves or ivory or, of course, that wealthy Englishman’s secret hoard of gold! It doesn’t really matter much whether such men ever raided as far south as Tarzan’s abode (wherever exactly it was located); they were a plot device.
I really do not favor the Kenyan location for Lord Greystoke’s lands (though Philip Jose Farmer used it). Rwanda seems better, but I definitely don’t discount the possibility of Zambia. That area does give the ape man more room and opportunity for adventure. We can’t ask Edgar Rice Burroughs at this point—and, honestly, he might not have had a clear idea himself. Tarzan simply lived somewhere in that region of central Africa along Congo’s eastern borders.
Wednesday, March 1, 2023
Grip, a poem